The suspension of our cars (II): most used systems

The suspensions have evolved a lot over the years. Depending on the qualities and use of vehicle manufacturers use certain types of suspensions. We will know the different types of suspension most used with their advantages and disadvantages.

So far we've talked about the most common systems and suspension setups that are applicable to most cars. All these components can be combined in many ways, resulting in the possibility of different configurations.

The suspension of our cars (I): Analysis and introduction

In this new release we will describe the most commonly used by manufacturers for both the front axle and the rear assemblies.

The suspension on the front axle

For many years the vast majority of vehicles mounted independent front suspension. This has the advantage reduced unsprung weight and the vibrations that occur in a wheel not affect another. The advantages are many, the level of comfort and effectiveness increases considerably compared to the ancient rigid suspensions.

The elastic element used in the front wheels is the spring, but sometimes the torsion bar is used. The provisions most commonly used are:

  • Mc Pherson suspension.
  • Double wishbone suspension.

MacPherson suspension

This type of suspensions are the most commonly used because of its simplicity and good behavior. It is a spring and a concentric damper whose upper end is fixed to the chassis and below the knuckle. The buffer usually has a support for supporting at the lower end and a cup that holds the upper spring. The cup is anchored to the body through Silentbloc and the bottom of the spindle is secured to a wishbone which in turn is attached to the chassis.

The advantages are especially simple and economical level, but as the performance level exceeds certain limits the system does not give more of themselves and have to move on to more complex as the double wishbone suspensions when we assimilate certain power levels.

This is a suspension MacPherson

Double wishbone suspension

It is to place two superimposed trapezia (one upper and other lower) whose ends have a hinge which holds the spindle. The spring and damper are mounted concentric and their ends are secured, from side to lower trapezius, and the other to the chassis.

Both systems can be accompanied by stabilizer bars and braces reaction will work easier suspension.

It is a system used in racing cars and sports court for their level of effectiveness since it offers a level of rigidity and superior inclination.

Detail double-wishbone suspension

The suspension on the rear axle

In the rear suspension more variety than at the front, to be many cars with independent suspension occurs, and with suspensions for rigid or semirigid axis.

Suspension axle

It is mostly used by ATVs and transport. It is to provide a rigid axle connecting the two rear wheels. The system can be accompanied by springs or leaf springs as elastic, shock absorbers, struts and strut reaction. It has the advantage of simplicity in construction and low manufacturing cost.

Another feature is the invariability of the falls of the rear wheels when driving on uneven ground and the disadvantage that the vibrations in a wheel are transmitted to the other. But the main problem is that it has a large unsprung weight. This means that when catching a bump, causes more inertia on that wheel, which translates into more rebounds and loss of grip.

Suspension axle

An intermediate solution to this problem is to mount a rigid axle and the chassis holding the differential-group. Thus the advantages of a rigid axle are achieved without the suspended weight is very high.

An intermediate solution to this problem is to mount a rigid axle and the chassis holding the differential-group. Thus the advantages of a rigid axle are achieved without the suspended weight is very high.

Rigid axle suspension

It is an axis connecting the two arms ahead of the wheels so that the arms are "lying". Although apparently can be a rigid axle, bearing the profile axis is in V and allows small twists. This system has great advantages as very good performance is achieved with great simplicity of manufacture.

Detail rigid axle suspension

independent suspension

The independent suspension is increasingly used in rear axles day. In short, it is a suspension in which an axis has nothing to do with the other. Has great advantages in terms of behavior and its main drawback are the manufacturing costs. Its arrangement is used:

  • Trailing arms with springs, stabilizer bars and dampers.
  • Trailing arms with torsion bars, stabilizers and buffers.
  • multilink suspension.
  • Mc Pherson suspension.

This is an independent suspension